Pearl is a kind of ancient organic gem, which is mainly produced in the mollusk of pearl shell and pearl mother shell.
The mineral beads containing calcium carbonate (aragonite) formed by endocrine action are composed of a large number of tiny aragonite crystals.Rich in variety, shapes and colors;
According to qualitative and archaeological studies, pearls existed on earth 200 million years ago.In the international gem world, pearls are also listed as a lucky stone for the birthday of June, as well as the commemorative stone for the 13th and 30th wedding anniversaries.Pearls with magnificent colors and elegant temperament, symbolizing health, purity, wealth and happiness, have been loved by people since ancient times.Pearls are also divided into freshwater pearls and seawater pearls.
The basic information
Pearl is in several kinds of mollusks, because inside the mantle or the layers of nacre around is not attached to the shell of the foreign particles aggregate to form a thick dense condensation, with various shapes, but the most typical is circular and pear-shaped present all sorts of color, but are usually white or light color, and there are different degrees of luster, writing as a decorative or medicine.
The English name Pearl is derived from the Latin Pernulo.Its other name is Margarite, derived from the ancient Persian Sanskrit meaning "child of the sea".
As early as in ancient times, the primitive people in the seaside foraging, found a color halo light of white pearl, and was attracted by its glittering and translucent magnificent, since then pearl has become people love decorations, and spread to today.
China's natural freshwater pearls are mainly produced in the hainan islands.Pearl has white department, red department, yellow department, dark department and motley department five kinds, most opaque.
The name of the other
Pearl, pearl, pearl, lian zhu
The inorganic components of pearl are mainly calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, accounting for more than 91%, followed by silicon oxide, calcium phosphate, Al2O3 and Fe2O3.
The organics in pearls contain 17 kinds of amino acids, such as aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, cystine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline.Additional, still contain 30 kinds of microelement, taurine, rich vitamin, peptide kind.
Pearls come in a variety of shapes, round, pear, egg, teardrop, button and any shape, round being the best.Heterogeneous body.Color has white, pink, flaxen, light green, light blue, brown, lilac, black, give priority to with white.White stripes.With typical pearl luster, the luster is soft and with rainbow halo color.Transparent to translucent.Refractive index 1.530-1.686, birefringence: aggregate unmeasurable.
The phenomenon of achromatic dispersion.Hardness is 2.5 to 4.5.The density of natural freshwater pearls is generally 2.66-2.78g/cm3, which varies with the origin.No cleavage.Good toughness.The white pearl is light blue to light yellow in short wave ultraviolet light.Yellow and gold pearls are yellow-green, green-brown to dark brown;Black pearls are usually pink to orange-red;X-rays have a yellowish - white glow.When hydrochloric acid bubbles.
Natural pearls are round, oval, irregular spherical or oblong, 1 ~ 6 mm in diameter.Surface kind white, yellow white, light pink, light blue, with beautiful color luster, smooth.Decorated pearls, most of them perforated in the center.Quality is hard, hard to break, section is layered.There is a crack in the fire.No gas, slightly salty taste.
The shape of cultured pearl is similar to that of natural pearl, but its surface gloss is weak. In the middle of the cross section, there are round sand grains or broken cassiae grains, and there is a thin layer of natural pearl on the surface.Only natural pearl layer is used for medicine.No gas, slightly salty taste.However, the appearance of hepu ecological pearl has greatly improved the quality of cultured pearls.
The product is a pellet pearl obtained from mussels.
Produce all year round, usually in June more, dive to the bottom of the sea, from water plants or rocks to take down the sea mussel, from which pearl.Meat is edible.
"War state policy · qin policy five" : "the palace of the prince to hide pearls and precious stones", tang li xian with "rich song" poem: "the pearl is poor dragon palace, plum-plum scrape under the health back.
2.The pearl of a clam.
Song yingxing of the Ming dynasty "day work open material · bead jade" : "where the pearl must produce clam belly......The longest time is the most precious ".
Yuan · ma zhiyuan "small peach · four childe curate fu · summer" qu: "mirror shade 12 hang pearl, swallow when come and go."Qing dynasty Chen weisong "drunk flower Yin · heavy Yang and garnish jade rhyme" words: "tonight is the double ninth, do not roll the pearl, blast through the west wind.
4. Of several species of mollusk, having various shapes, but the most typical being round and having a variety of colors, usually white or light, with varying degrees of gloss, used for decoration or medicine.It is the national stone of France, the Philippines and India.
The development history
China is one of the first countries in the world to make use of pearls. As early as 4,000 years ago, there were records in the book of shangshu yu gong that a river clam could produce pearls, and there were also records about pearls in the book of songs, the book of mountains and seas, the book of erya and the book of changes.Pearls can be divided into natural pearls and cultured pearls according to their origin. Natural pearls mainly refer to pearls naturally formed in shellfish and mussels.Traditionally, people divide pearls into three types: seawater pearls, freshwater pearls and artificial pearls. Freshwater pearls refer to pearls produced in rivers and rivers.
China's pearl culture technology has been very mature, pearl prices are also popular.China is an ancient country of pearls worthy of the name in the world. According to the book of history, yu gong, "huai yi bin zhu", it shows that the history of pearl fishing in China began as early as 4,000 years ago in the era of xia yu, when the huai river began to produce freshwater pearls.It is recorded in gezhijingyuan · dressing Taiwan that king wen of zhou decorated his bun with pearls.Therefore, it is generally believed that China's pearl decoration began in the eastern zhou dynasty.Since the qin and han dynasties, pearl decoration became more and more popular.Pearl has become the luxury of the court officials and nobles, the emperor has begun to accept the pearl, the eastern han dynasty guiyang taishou wen hulong han han han emperor "pearl worship", the western han dynasty royal princes also widely used pearl, pearl has become a symbol of honor.
In the western Renaissance, the famous painting "birth of Venus" vividly depicts the formation of the myth of pearl story: Venus goddess with a slowly opened giant shell slowly emerged from the sea, shed countless water droplets, water drops instantly into a white pearl, lifelike, give people the experience of the United States.
Mussel's coat membrane by foreign body (sand, parasites) invasion of stimulation, the stimulation of the epidermal cells with foreign body as the nucleus, into the connective tissue of the coat, trapped in part of the coat of the epidermal cells to divide into the formation of pearl capsule, pearl capsule cells secrete nastric, layer after layer of nuclear enveloped up that is pearl.The foreign body as the core is called "nucleated pearl".
When the epidermis is stimulated by pathology, some of the cells divide and then separate, and then become enveloped by the organic substances they secrete. Meanwhile, the epidermis gradually falls into the connective tissue of the coat, forming a pearl capsule and forming a pearl.Because there is no foreign body for the nucleus, called "nucleate pearl."
Cultured pearls, is based on the above principle, the use of artificial methods, from the yukon coat film then cut out the living epithelial cells (cells) dice, dice with mussel and the preparation of artificial cores, inserted in the clam coat membrane connective tissue, the implanted cells, dice rely on nutrition, connective tissue surrounding artificial nuclear proliferation, quickly form the pearl sac, secrete pearl quality, resulting in artificial nucleated pearls.Artificial nucleated pearl is a pearl that is only implanted into a small piece of cell during the operation of outer mantle, and then the cell proliferates to form the pearl sac, and injects nacre into the sac to generate the pearl.
Produce them class
Bivalves such as pearl mussel Pteria martensii (Dunker) or mussel Hyriopsis cumingii (Lea) and Cristaria plicata (Leach).
Alias: pearl shell
Warm bottom perches shellfish, shell left and right size is not equal, often left shell larger than right shell, shell length and width slightly equal.The anterior ear is large and short and the posterior ear is long.
Erosari(Ravitrona) caputserpentis (l.)- Mollusca, Lamellibranchia, Pseudolamellibranchia, Pseudolamellibranchia, Pteriidae is a kind of warm submarine shellfish, with two shells, which are different from each other, the left shell is slightly larger than the right shell, and the pit is deeper than the right shell.The length and height of the shell are almost equal, usually about 6 ~ 7 cm long, larger than 10 cm.
The anterior ear is large and short and the posterior ear is long.Shell surface yellowish brown, with black radial streaks.Growth grade is obvious.With dense scales, brittle, near the top of the shell is relatively smooth.The shell is white or yellowish, with pearl luster.The shell margin is thin, yellowish-brown, and there are 1 ~ 2 main teeth at the hinge.Ligaments are slender and brown.The muscle trace of the closed shell is large, slightly auricular and almost in the middle of the shell.
The top of the shell is located near the front.Foot small, can produce foot silk thread, in front of the right shell hole out.Attached to reef sand.When mother pearl and mussel are growing in water, if they happen to encounter some fine sand particles or some hard organisms running into the inner and outer membrane of the shell, the outer membrane will be stimulated, and they will feel uncomfortable.
Pearls using this principle, is generally choose 3 or so individuals, inserted nuclear surgery, consciously in the sand, coat film feel discomfort and many of the nacre to package is the is secreted into the sand, and thus formed the artificial pearls, and artificially even inputs into various shapes, the result obtained is also various.Produced in the warm sea 1 ~ 10 meters deep.Larval habitat area is relatively shallow, grow up gradually to the deep sea area.Mainly distributed in hainan island and other coastal areas of guangdong.
Freshwater benthic shellfish.The shell is nearly triangular.The anterior front is short and low, the anterior dorsal margin coronal process is not obvious, the posterior margin oblique upward...A large crown.The top of the shell has several rib veins.
Cristaria plicata Leach-- Unionidae
Freshwater benthic shellfish.The shell is thick and large, and its shape is slightly like an equilateral triangle.The anterior part is short and low, the anterior dorsal margin of the coronoid process is not obvious, the posterior part is long and high, and the posterior margin of the back extends diagonally upward to form a large crown.
The posterior back of the shell has a series of gradually thickening longitudinal ribs from the top of the shell to the back.Trailing edge round.Ventral margin long nearly straight line.The shell apex is located about 1/6 from the front end of the shell and has several rib veins.The crown of the adult body often leaves only a remnant mark, the shell of the young body is generally intact.The shell surface is dark yellowish green to dark brown. The top of the shell is often eroded and loses its surface color.
The hinge is strong and the ligaments are strong at the base of the crown.The left and right shells each have a tall posterior lateral tooth.The front side tooth is thin, the lower part of the rear side tooth and the outside have several longitudinal protrusion and concave groove.The muscle mark of the anterior closed shell is big and wedge-shaped, the muscle mark of the extensor is round, the muscle mark of the anterior closed shell is small and deep, the muscle mark of the posterior closed shell is big and shallow, the coat muscle mark is wide, the pearl layer has luster.Living in the mud bottom of rivers and lakes, moving slowly.
Note: most of the materials that make up pearls and shells are calcium carbonate.Calcium carbonate forms calcite and aragonite with different crystallization conditions. Pearls are composed of aragonite, while shells are prismatic layers composed of calcite.Therefore, although they are both calcium carbonate crystals, but due to the different crystal system, so the formation of different substances - pearl and shell.
It is a kind of half-sided pearl, also known as Mabe pearl, steamed bun pearl and half-round pearl.Generally after the acquisition has good breeding pearls, insert the prefabricated half shaped bead nuclear shell inner wall, make the convex toward the mantle of nacre, plane tiejin, pearlescent shell wall plug into the water again after feeding, accumulate over a long period, jean bead bead nuclear layer by layer, outside layer will be wrapped up form a semicircle, when gathering with its partial pearlescent shells extracted thrown together into a wall act the role ofing is tasted, the individual large.Mabee pearl is essentially a kind of regenerated pearl. Before this, each pearl pearl can produce two round pearls and then grow 3-7 mabee pearls.The smallest can be 10mm, large to 17mm or larger, and in a variety of shapes such as round, water drop, oval and heart.The world gem market is very popular ma bi bead jewelry, it is fair maiden notabile people not only wear act the role of a pet, and the unique and elegant gem jewelry that USES ma bi bead creation also got the special favour of gentlemen.
Refers to the shape of a round pearl, according to the roundness is divided into three kinds, namely the round bead, round bead and near round bead.
Round bead is the best roundness, commercial also known as the disk bead, the maximum diameter and the minimum diameter of the difference and the average diameter of less than 1%;A round bead is a round pearl with a diameter difference of between one and five percent.Subglobes are those that are closer to the globes in shape, with a difference in diameter of between 5 and 10 percent.
An oval shaped pearl with a length-to-diameter ratio greater than 10 percent.The short ellipse and the long ellipse can be further classified by the percentage of the difference between the length and diameter, with the percentage of the difference between the length and diameter of the short ellipse being 10 to 20 per cent;The percentage of diameter difference between long ellipses is greater than 20%.
Refers to the shape of a flat surface, there is one or two sides of the approximate plane shape, such as flat circle, flat oval, cake shape, diamond, square.This type of pearl is most suitable for making string of pearls.
Dr Than bead
It is a kind of half-sided pearl, also known as Mabe pearl, steamed bun pearl and half-round pearl, also known as mabei pearl.
In addition to round beads, oval beads, mabi-beads other forms of different pearls are also quite a few, pear shape, water drop shape, rice shape, potato shape, bean shape and other shapes of pearls on the commercial collectively known as shaped pearls.
Wrap the pearl in cloth, put it into the bean curd paste, boil for about 3 hours, remove and wash, grind into a very fine powder and serve.
1.Remove the pearl, add an appropriate amount of water and grind it together, add more water, stir, pour out the suspension, and then repeat the operation of the sinking part according to the above method for several times, remove the impurities, combine the mixed liquid, stand still, separate the precipitation, dry, and make the most fine powder (pharmacopoeia 85).
2.Take pearl, wash dirt, wrap with cloth, add tofu and water to boil for about 2 hours, remove, wash with water, mash, add a little water to grind into a very fine powder, dry out (pharmacopoeia 63).
Tofu is made
1.Clean the product, put into a cloth bag or gauze package, boil with tofu or soybean milk for 2-3 hours, take out, wash, mash, water fly into a very fine powder.Each pearl is 1kg, using tofu 2kg or soybean milk 5kg (ningxia).
2.Wrap the pearl in cloth, put it into the bean curd, steam it for about 3 hours, remove it, wash it, dry it and grind it into a fine powder (Inner Mongolia).
Remove the pearls, separate the size, put them in an iron pot, and then add a bowl on the top of it. Burn the pearls with a medium fire until the sound of explosion is exhausted. Remove the pearls, cool them down, or grind them into a fine powder, and dry them (shandong).
Many seemingly pure beads of jewelry appear in the arts and crafts market.With plastic film coating process beads are very good identification, two beads a pair of grinding straight slip, and a fine round plate, as if is made in a mold, a scrape will drop a layer of skin.And a few take shell as core, the craft bead that besmear goes up coating, appreciation does not rise relatively difficult, some bead shape becomes to contain all sorts of freshwater bead texture grain with lathe car even appearance, brush straight drop powder, resemble true same, it is a bit "true" overdo.
China's natural sea pearls are mainly produced in the hainan islands.
China's natural freshwater pearls are mainly produced in the lakes of south China, zhejiang zhuji is a famous pearl town.In ancient times, people called the natural round beads as walking beads.Pearl, agate, crystal and jade are also known as the "four treasures" of ancient Chinese tradition.
A Filipino fisherman found a giant pearl weighing 34 kilograms, more than 60 centimeters long and worth $100 million more than 10 years ago in the waters off Puerto Princesa on Palawan Island.The giant pearl could be the world's largest, five times larger than the previous world record.
Gentleness in natural brilliance
Without the brilliance of diamonds or the dazzle of colorful treasures, the pearl has a mild and delicate color and a beautiful natural form.Every surface of a pearl has a faint dazzling pearl, this elusive mysterious charm and elegant temperament and feminine feeling, especially elegant implicit Oriental women.
The gentle charm of pearls
Pearl is the only treasure that is naturally produced without processing and has magical vitality. It is so precious that in a very long time, no matter in Europe or China, only royal families could enjoy pearl.China began mining and using pearls more than 2,000 years ago.
The medicinal use of pearls has a history of more than 2000 years in China.The curative effect of pearls is clearly recorded in 19 ancient medical books of The Three Kingdoms period, such as the medical book of famous doctors, the book of materia medica of the liang dynasty, the book of materia medica of the tang dynasty, the book of kaibao materia medica of the song dynasty, the book of compendium of materia medica of the Ming dynasty, and the book of the drug of thunder gong in the qing dynasty.
Tao hongjing of liang dynasty said in the book of the book of matsutra that pearls "have the function of curing eyes and skin and preventing leakage".According to sea medicine materia medica of the tang dynasty, pearls can clear the eyes, eliminate halo and stop leakage.In the yuan dynasty, merchants often drank the water with honey and pearl powder, thinking that it could nourish and prevent the heat.Yuan hao wen recorded in "xu yi jian zhi" : "tao shui winter ice...Round and clean as pearls...Mix it with honey water and pearl powder in the middle of summer."
In Ming dynasty, li shizhen paid more attention to the pharmacological effects of pearls, and believed that the efficacy of pearls was in beautifying the skin.Pearl coating, make people moist good color.Tu brothers, to skin inverse lu;Drop phlegm, in addition to face spots, diarrhea;In addition to children, calm soul;Stop seminal emission white turbid, solution pox cure poison....Make the luster white and so on.At the same time, it also records the pearl medicinal methods.
In the Ming dynasty, Chen jilu quoted the book "unique records" as saying that during the reign of li yan of tang wuzong, prime minister li deyu took jewelry powder, realgar and cinerite as soup. Each cup of soup cost about 30,000 yuan, and the dregs were discarded after three frying.At that time popular alchemy, people think, pearl powder, realgar and other things, after being refined to take long life not old, hefa tong yan.